Why Do We Get Seasonal Allergies? [2023 Updates]

Seasonal allergies, also known as hay fever or allergic rhinitis, affect a significant portion of the population. 

As the seasons change, many individuals experience a range of unpleasant symptoms that can significantly impact their daily lives. 

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In this article, we will explore the reasons behind the development of seasonal allergies, the common triggers, and strategies for managing and coping with this condition.

Understanding seasonal allergies

Seasonal allergies refer to allergic reactions that occur during specific times of the year. They are triggered by the immune system’s response to substances known as allergens, which are typically harmless to most people. 

The immune system of individuals with seasonal allergies overreacts to these allergens, leading to a cascade of symptoms.

Common symptoms of seasonal allergies

Seasonal allergies can manifest with various symptoms, including sneezing, congestion, runny nose, itchy and watery eyes, and itching of the throat and ears. 

These symptoms can significantly impair an individual’s quality of life, affecting their sleep, work productivity, and overall well-being.

Prevalence and impact of seasonal allergies

Seasonal allergies are prevalent worldwide and affect people of all ages. According to the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, approximately 8% of adults in the United States suffer from seasonal allergies. 

The economic burden of seasonal allergies is substantial, considering the costs associated with medications, doctor visits, and missed work or school days.

Causes of Seasonal Allergies

Allergens in the Environment

The primary cause of seasonal allergies is exposure to specific allergens present in the environment. The most common allergens responsible for seasonal allergies include pollen and mold spores. 

Pollen from trees, grasses, and weeds is a prevalent allergen during the spring, summer, and fall months.

Mold spores, which thrive in damp and humid conditions, can trigger allergies throughout the year.

Immune system response

When individuals with seasonal allergies come into contact with allergens, their immune system recognizes these substances as harmful invaders. 

The immune system produces antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE) in response to allergen exposure. 

Over time, individuals become sensitized to these allergens, and subsequent exposures trigger an allergic response. 

This response involves the release of chemicals, such as histamine, which cause the characteristic symptoms of seasonal allergies.

Risk Factors for Seasonal Allergies

Family history

Having a family history of allergies increases the likelihood of developing seasonal allergies. If one or both parents have allergies, their children are at a higher risk of developing allergies as well.

Age and gender

Seasonal allergies can develop at any age, but they often begin during childhood or early adulthood. Additionally, males and females have an equal risk of developing seasonal allergies.

Geographic location

The prevalence of specific allergens varies depending on the geographic location. Different regions have different types of trees, grasses, and weeds, which release varying amounts of pollen. 

This variation in allergen exposure can contribute to differences in the prevalence and severity of seasonal allergies.

Occupational exposure

Certain occupations involve a higher risk of exposure to allergens, such as farming, gardening, and landscaping.

Individuals in these professions may have an increased susceptibility to developing seasonal allergies due to regular contact with allergenic substances.

Seasonal Allergy Management

Avoidance strategies

To minimize exposure to allergens, individuals with seasonal allergies can employ various avoidance strategies. 

Monitoring pollen counts can help them plan outdoor activities on days with lower pollen levels. Keeping windows closed and using air purifiers can reduce the entry of allergens into indoor spaces.

Medications for symptom relief

Over-the-counter and prescription medications are available to alleviate the symptoms of seasonal allergies. 

Antihistamines can help relieve sneezing, itching, and runny nose, while nasal sprays and eye drops can provide localized relief. 

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate medication and dosage.


For individuals with severe and persistent allergies, immunotherapy may be an effective long-term treatment option. 

Allergy shots, also known as subcutaneous immunotherapy, involve regular injections of small amounts of allergens to desensitize the immune system. 

Sublingual tablets, placed under the tongue, are another form of immunotherapy that can be self-administered at home under medical supervision.

Coping with Seasonal Allergies

Lifestyle adjustments

Making certain lifestyle adjustments can help individuals cope with seasonal allergies. Minimizing outdoor activities during peak pollen times, such as early morning and late afternoon, can reduce allergen exposure. 

Showering and changing clothes after spending time outdoors can help remove pollen from the body. Using air purifiers with HEPA filters at home can trap airborne allergens.

Natural remedies

Some individuals explore natural remedies to manage their seasonal allergy symptoms. Neti pots, which involve rinsing the nasal passages with a saline solution, can provide temporary relief from congestion.

Certain herbal supplements, such as butterbur and quercetin, have been studied for their potential anti-allergic properties. 

However, it is crucial to consult a healthcare professional before trying any natural remedies.

Seeking medical advice

If seasonal allergy symptoms significantly impact daily life or if over-the-counter medications are ineffective, it is advisable to seek medical advice. 

An allergist can perform diagnostic tests to identify specific allergens and develop a personalized treatment plan. 

They can also provide guidance on managing allergies alongside other existing health conditions.


Seasonal allergies affect a considerable portion of the population, causing bothersome symptoms that can disrupt daily activities. 

Understanding the causes of seasonal allergies, such as exposure to allergens and the immune system’s response, can help individuals navigate the management and coping strategies available. 

By implementing avoidance techniques, utilizing medications, considering immunotherapy, and making lifestyle adjustments, individuals with seasonal allergies can find relief and improve their overall quality of life.


How long do seasonal allergies typically last?

The duration of seasonal allergies can vary depending on the allergens and the individual’s sensitivity. Generally, seasonal allergies can last for several weeks to months, coinciding with the specific allergen’s peak season.

Can seasonal allergies develop later in life?

Yes, it is possible for individuals to develop seasonal allergies later in life, even if they have not experienced symptoms previously. Allergies can develop at any age due to various factors, including changes in the immune system or exposure to new allergens.

Are seasonal allergies the same as food allergies?

Seasonal allergies and food allergies are distinct conditions. Seasonal allergies are triggered by airborne allergens, such as pollen and mold spores, while food allergies involve an immune system reaction to specific foods. The symptoms and management strategies differ between the two conditions.

Can pets trigger seasonal allergies?

Pets themselves are not a direct cause of seasonal allergies. However, pet fur or dander can carry pollen or other allergens, which may exacerbate allergy symptoms in susceptible individuals. Proper pet hygiene and regular cleaning can help minimize allergen exposure.

Is it possible to outgrow seasonal allergies?

While it is possible for some individuals to outgrow seasonal allergies, it is not guaranteed. Allergies can wax and wane over time, with some individuals experiencing a reduction in symptoms or complete resolution. However, others may continue to have seasonal allergies throughout their lives.

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